Also, as a result of evaporation from the ponds, methane and other pungent gases like hydrogen sulfide released which pollute air, water streams and soil. OMWWs has high organic content and many complex organic materials which resist natural biodegradation therefore has negative environmental effects such as odors, discoloring of natural waters and toxicity, threat to marine life by building impenetrable film on the surface causing oxygen transfer problem.
Odor generation was felt around mills which are mainly influenced by lack of good housekeeping, lack of good hygienic conditions, improper waste storage areas, and long storage period of pomace or OMWWs and weather conditions. The field audits revealed that most of the modern mills two and three phase technology mills are cleaner, with better hygienic conditions and better good housekeeping measures resulting in lower odor emissions.
However, this fact could be offset by improper storage or long-term onsite storage of generated pomace olive cake or OMWWs. As for traditional mills, the lack of proper hygienic conditions or good housekeeping is due to the fact that most of its machinery and production process is exposed to air open and its operation is characterized by higher spills and leakages than modern mills due to high reliance on manual operation. Again, improper and long-term storage has additional direct influence on overall odor emissions.
The olive oil industries in Jordan do nothing in terms of waste management, so introducing cleaner production options, prevention, control and treatment measures in olive oil industries should be implemented. Proper environmental waste management's system in the mills, training of operators and technical assistance for stakeholders to encourage them to maintain principles of green processing of olive oil is essential.
The government should set regulations and standards for the olive oil effluents and enforce these regulations by adequate monitoring strategy.
The study also concluded that there is an urgent need to set an emergency plan to handle the olive mills wastewater and avoid its discharge to the environment. The idea of establishing more than one central pretreatment plant would be a viable and a feasible option for the treatment of olive mills wastewater in Jordan.
The increased acidity and the reductive potential of the OMWWs makes them extremely corrosive for any sewage pipeline system, while their composition and their extremely high organic load strictly prohibits even the thought of disposing them into any municipal wastewater treatment unit. The disposal of OMWWs in the soil, which has been proposed as a temporary solution to the problem, has similar negative consequences.
Apart from the intensive malodor and the requirements of large areas, liquid wastes bring about a dramatic change in the composition of the soil's microbial community by inducing the growth of specific groups of microorganisms, changing the air-water balance of soil and probably reducing soil fertility. Their oil content though, may reduce infiltration rate and water retention and increase soil hydrophobicity . Despite this fact, disposal of solid olive mill waste pomace results in increase in saturation hydraulic conductivity, water retention and capillary elevation .
Large scale technical solutions for OMMWs treatment are not yet been commercially available . Some measures can be taken to reduce the waste production from washing and mixing, thus reducing their environmental impact. The following suggestions can help in reducing waste volume and better waste management.
Pollution estimation from olive mills wastewater in Jordan
The majority of the Jordanian olive mills are three-phase mill In total, Jordan processed some , tons of olives in , which is a good harvest season, out of which 15, tons in traditional mills, 59, tons in two-phase mills, and , tons of olives in three-phase mills. The results showed that OMWWs contains high levels of organic matter in addition to phenols and therefore must be treated before discharge to the environment or sewer system.
The OMWWs generated in traditional mills contains higher organic content and phenols more than two and three phase mills. OMWWs also, contain high concentration of total suspended solids TSS , phenols in addition to having a very high concentration of residual olive oil. Approximately , m 3 of OMWWs was generated in which generate roughly:. Adnan I. Khdair: Conceived and designed the experiments; Performed the experiments; Analyzed and interpreted the data; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Heliyon v. Published online Aug Khdair d. Sawsan I.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Khdair: oj. Abstract Olive mill wastewaters OMWWs are a significant source of environmental pollution, especially in important olive oil producing countries such as Spain, Greece, Syria, Jordan and other countries in the Mediterranean.
Keywords: Environmental science, Organic matter, Olive mill wastewater, Cleaner production, Pollution prevention, Identifies pollutant levels. Introduction Olive mill wastewater OMWW is the liquid by-product generated during olive oil production process . Materials and methods The study was started by conducting a field survey on all olive oil mills in Jordan in Environmental audits for selected olive mills using different extraction techniques The study was initiated with the selection of fifteen olive mills in the northern of Jordan Irbid and Ajloun governorates using different oil extraction techniques traditional, two phase and three phase continuous techniques for environmental auditing and analyzing their waste chemical characteristics.
Results and discussion 3. Open in a separate window. National distribution of water consumption and OMWWs generated per region. Environmental impact of olive oil mill's wastes Water quantities used in the mills depends on labor practices and pressing techniques three phases mills required large amounts of water. Such incentives include the provision of tax exemptions and soft loans for acquiring clean productions units and equipment. Two plants should be constructed one at Al-Ekaider land fill in the north of the country where , m 3 sealed pond was constructed mainly for OMWW disposal in The second treatment plant can be built at Al-Humra land fill in Balqa province where 10, m 3 sealed evaporation pond was also constructed in for the disposal of olive mills wastewater.
Both sites are closed to major olive mills in the country. Conclusion The majority of the Jordanian olive mills are three-phase mill Declarations Author contribution statement Adnan I. Funding statement This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Competing interest statement The authors declare no conflict of interest. Additional information No additional information is available for this paper. References 1. Hytiris N.
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